Research and Publication Ethics

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Enacted: August 17, 2015
Amended by other acts: December 04, 2020
Revised: August 17, 2022

Chapter 1 General Provisions

Article 1 (Purpose)

The purpose of these bylaws is to establish research ethics in connection with the publication of academic journals, such as "Journal of Real Estate Analysis," to prevent research misconduct and to deal fairly with instances of research misconduct.

Article 2 (Principle of Application)

These bylaws apply to articles intended for publication in journals published by the REB Real Estate Research Institute. <Revised on December 4, 2020>

Chapter 2 Research Misconduct

Article 3 (Research Misconduct)

Research misconduct (hereinafter referred to as "misconduct") refers to acts such as fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, improper authorship, duplicate submission, redundant publication, resubmission, and misconduct in collaborative research involving specially related persons that are committed in the proposal or conduct of a research project or the reporting and publication of research results. The definition of each of the following forms of misconduct is consistent with the following articles. <Revised August 17, 2022>

Article 4 (Fabrication, Falsification)

① "Fabrication" refers to the act of falsely creating nonexistent data or research results.

② "Falsification" refers to the act of distorting research content or results by artificially manipulating the research process or arbitrarily altering or deleting data.

Article 5 (Plagiarism)

"Plagiarism" refers to the act of stealing another's ideas, research content, results, etc., without proper authorization or citation.

1. The objects of plagiarism are unique thoughts (ideas), unique expressions (words, phrases, clauses, sentences, graphs, diagrams, photographs, etc.), research concepts (hypotheses), methods (analytical systems or logic), theories and research results, and data and survey data in other people's works.

2. Reusing a work, even your own, in whole or in part, as if it were new, without properly attributing it, is also plagiarism.

3. When using part of another's research ideas, data, or writing, credit should be given or it should be cited accurately.

4. Plagiarism occurs when, despite proper attribution, the quantity or quality of citations exceeds a reasonable range to the detriment of the originality of the research.

5. Usage of texts, images, ideas, research results, etc., that are part of the generally accepted knowledge of the academic community is not considered plagiarism, even if they are described without citation.

Article 6 ("Improper Authorship")

"Improper authorship" refers to the act of not attributing authorship to a person who has made a scientific and technical contribution to the contents or results of a study without a justifiable reason or attributing authorship to a person who has not made a scientific and technical contribution for reasons such as gratitude or honor.

Article 6.2 (Duplicate Submission)

"Duplicate submission" refers to the submission of an article that has already been submitted to another journal, either domestic or foreign. Submitting an article that has already been submitted elsewhere to a journal is also considered a duplicate submission. [Added on August 17, 2022]

Article 7 (Redundant Publication)

① "Redundant Publication" refers to the act of resubmitting (publishing) a work that is identical or substantially similar to a work already published by the contributor without disclosing the publication of the previous work.

  • 1. Articles or similar articles published in Korea Research Foundation's listed journals, candidate journals, or overseas journals are not eligible for submission or publication in this journal.
  • 2. Articles published in journals other than those listed or nominated for listing by the Korea Research Foundation, such as campus journals, may be submitted to and published in this journal only if they have been revised and supplemented, in which case the fact of revision and supplementation must be indicated.
  • 3. Researchers may submit their own previous research in the process of deepening and applying their research, but they must disclose the previous research they have used by citing the source.
  • 4. If a part of a paper or research report presented at an academic conference or seminar is submitted to this journal as it is, or with modifications or supplementations, the author must indicate that the work has been previously presented.
  • 5. If a doctoral or master's thesis or part of it is submitted to this journal as is or with modifications or additions, the author of the thesis must be listed as an author of the article.

② The following types of publications may not be considered duplication of work; however, the existence and source of the prior work used must be disclosed.

  • 1. An unpublished thesis or dissertation in the form of a paper.
  • 2. A work written at the request or for the purpose of a specific organization, such as a service report or policy proposal, as a separate article.
  • 3. The author's own research report that has already been published as a separate article.
  • 4. Working papers and similar research materials that have been developed into articles.

Article 8 (Resubmission)

① "Resubmission" refers to the act of resubmitting an article that has been rejected by the journal or submitting an article similar to it.

② Articles or similar articles that have been rejected by this journal may not be resubmitted.

③ For an article to be distinguishable from an existing article that has been deemed unpublishable under the provisions of paragraph 2, it must differ significantly from the existing article in at least two of the following respects:

  • 1. Research purpose
  • 2. Research method
  • 3. Research materials
  • 4. Research scope
  • 5. Research results
  • 6. Reasoning

Article 8.2 (Misconduct in Collaborative Research Involving Specially Related Persons)

"Misconduct in Collaborative Research Involving Specially Related Persons" refers to the act of misrepresenting the contents of Appendix 8, "Confirmation of Co-authorship with Specially Related Person," of the "Journal Editing and Publication Bylaws" regarding the participation of minors (persons under the age of 19) or family members (collateral relatives including spouses, children, etc.) (hereinafter referred to as "specially related persons") in research, and thereby benefiting from the research (such as by using the article for admission or employment). [Added on August 17, 2022]

Article 9 (Other Misconduct)

① Intentionally obstructing the investigation of suspected misconduct by oneself or others or causing harm to the informant.

② Acts that are seriously outside the bounds of what is generally accepted in academia, etc.

③ Any other similar research misconduct.

Article 10 (Deliberation)

The Editorial Board will determine whether a violation of research ethics has occurred and ascertain the severity of the violation.

Chapter 3 Research Ethics Committee

Article 11 (Composition)

① The Research Ethics Committee (hereinafter referred to as REC) shall comprise at least five members, including a chairperson.

② The chairperson of the REC shall be appointed from among the members of the Editorial Board and, if necessary, may be appointed separately by resolution of the Editorial Board.

③ The members of the REC shall be appointed by the Editor-in-Chief from among the members of the Editorial Board or external experts, and at least half of the members should have specialized knowledge and experience in the relevant field.

④ No person with an interest in the matter under investigation may be included in the REC.

⑤ If an investigator is involved in or suspected of misconduct, he or she may be dismissed by resolution of the Editorial Board.

⑥ The administrative secretary shall be the administrative secretary of the Editorial Board.

Article 12 (Functions)

The REC shall deliberate and take decisions on the following matters.

1. Matters relating to the receipt and disposition of reports of research misconduct.

2. Matters relating to the initiation of review and the evaluation, approval, and review of review findings.

3. Matters relating to the protection of informants and human subjects.

4. Matters relating to the processing and follow-up of research integrity review findings.

5. Other matters related to the operation of the REC.

Article 13 (Period of Activity)

The REC shall be active from the time it is organized in accordance with the convening order of the Editorial Board in Article 23 until the conclusion of the investigation.

Article 14 (Resolutions of the REC)

① The REC shall be convened by a majority of the members, and a resolution may be passed if a majority of the members present vote in favor of it. However, the determination of misconduct under Articles 4 through 9 shall be made by a majority of the members present and a two-thirds affirmative vote of the members present. In the event of a tie vote, the chairperson shall cast the deciding vote.

② The REC shall meet in closed session and may, if necessary, invite the parties concerned to attend and hear their views.

Article 15 (Investigation Expenses)

A prescribed investigation fee may be paid to an external investigator attending the REC.

Chapter 4 Reporting and Protection of Rights

Article 16 (Reporting)

① An informant refers to a person who informs the Investigation Committee of the facts or relevant evidencethey have recognized regarding wrongdoing.

② Informants may report in any way, including orally, in writing, by telephone, or by e-mail. In principle, whistleblowers shall report under their real name. However, if the report is made anonymously, it will be treated as a real name report if it includes the name of the research project or thesis and the details and evidence of the specific misconduct in writing or by e-mail.

Article 17 (Protection of Informants’ Rights)

① The REC shall protect informants from being subjected to status disadvantages, such as discipline, discrimination in working conditions, undue pressure, or harm, for reporting wrongdoing.

② The REC shall be held responsible if informants are subjected to any of the disadvantages mentioned in paragraph 1 or if their identity is revealed against their will.

③ Informants may request the REC to inform them of the investigation’s procedure and timeline following the report of misconduct, and the REC shall respond in good faith.

④ Informants who knowingly make false reports will not be protected.

Article 18 (Protection of the Rights of Persons Under Investigation)

① A person under investigation is an individual who is being investigated for alleged misconduct through a report or finding by the REC or an individual who is suspected of misconduct during the investigation; it does not include references or witnesses in the investigation.

② The REC will take care not to unduly compromise the dignity or rights of the individual during the investigation.

③ Suspected misconduct shall not be disclosed to the public until the investigation is completed.

④ The individual under investigation may request information regarding the investigation and its procedures and timeline, and the REC shall respond in good faith.

Chapter 5 Misconduct Review Procedure and Criteria

Article 19 <Deleted on August 17, 2022>

Article 20 (Verification Principle)

① Responsibility for proving misconduct rests with the REC. However, if the person under investigation fails to submit the materials requested by the preliminary investigator or the REC or intentionally damages the materials, the responsibility for proving the content found to be contained in the requested materials shall rest with the person under investigation.

② The REC shall equally guarantee the right and opportunity to the informant and the person under investigation to express their opinions, objections, and defenses and shall inform them in advance of the relevant procedures.

Article 21 (Verification Procedure)

The procedure for investigating research misconduct shall be conducted in three stages: preliminary investigation, main investigation, and adjudication.

Article 22 (Preliminary Investigation)

① The preliminary investigation is the procedure used to determine whether there is a basis for further investigation into the suspicion of misconduct.

② The chairperson of the Editorial Board shall appoint no more than two preliminary investigators within one day of recognizing the misconduct or receiving the report.

③ The preliminary investigators shall investigate the following issues and report to the Editorial Board within 10 days of the commencement of the preliminary investigation. <Revised on August 17, 2022>

  • 1. Whether the reported behavior constitutes misconduct under Article 3.
  • 2. <Deleted on August 17, 2022>.
  • 3. Whether it is necessary to conduct the main investigation.

④ The results of the preliminary investigation shall include:

  • 1. The specific content of the report
  • 2. A description of the alleged misconduct and related research that was investigated
  • 3. A recommendation regarding whether the main investigation should be conducted with the basis for the determination
  • 4. Any other evidence of misconduct

⑤ The results of the preliminary investigation shall be communicated in writing to the informant and the person under investigation within five days of the decision of the Editorial Board. However, if the informant is anonymous, this does not apply.

⑥ If the person under investigation admits to all facts of misconduct following the preliminary investigation, the decision may be taken directly, bypassing the main investigation procedure.

⑦ The informant may appeal to the Editorial Board within 10 days of notification if dissatisfied with the outcome of the preliminary investigation.

Article 23 (Main Investigation)

① Upon receipt of the results of the preliminary investigation under Article 22, the Editorial Board shall decide whether to conduct the main investigation and shall order the convening of the REC within 5 days.

② The convened REC shall commence the main investigation within 10 days of the date of receipt of the convening order.

③ During the main investigation, the REC shall have the following powers:

  • 1. To summon the informant, the person under investigation, witnesses, and references to provide statements during the investigation.
  • 2. To request the person under investigation to submit materials and to preserve the investigation materials for the preservation of evidence.
  • 3. To recommend to the Editorial Board sanctions under Article 26 for those involved in misconduct.

④ Within 10 days of completing the main investigation, the REC shall submit a report to the Editorial Board containing the contents of the report, relevant evidence, statements, findings, and recommendations for sanctions. If the investigation cannot be completed within the 10-day period, the REC may request an extension from the Editorial Board, not exceeding 20 days.

⑤ Prior to finalizing the report, the REC shall provide both the informant and the person under investigation with the opportunity to express their views, raise objections, and defend themselves. If neither party responds, it will be assumed that there is no objection.

Article 24 (Adjudication)

① Adjudication refers to the process of confirming the results of the investigation and notifying the informant and the person under investigation in writing. Adjudication should be completed within 10 days of the conclusion of the investigation.

② Adjudication shall be finalized by the Editorial Board through a resolution based on the investigation report of the REC.

③ The entire investigation, from the beginning of the preliminary investigation to the conclusion of

adjudication, should be completed within two months. However, if it is found that it is difficult to complete the investigation within this period, the Editorial Board may extend the investigation period by up to one month.

Article 25 (Reconsideration)

① If either the informant or the person under investigation is dissatisfied with the decision, they may file an appeal to the Editorial Board within five days of receiving the notification. The Editorial Board shall conduct a reconsideration if the appeal is deemed reasonable and valid.

② If the Editorial Board decides to reconsider, the REC shall be reconvened, and a new REC may be formed if necessary.

Article 26 (Sanctions for Misconduct)

If the REC confirms misconduct and the Editorial Board approves it, the following sanctions may be imposed on the offender: <Revised on December 4, 2020 and August 17, 2022>

1. Rejection of publication and review (if published, removal from the list of published articles in the journal).

2. Prohibition of the author from submitting papers in the future (at least 3 years, depending on the severity).

3. Publication on the website of the REB Real Estate Research Institute and in the next issue of the journal.

4. Notification of the details of the content to the National Research Foundation of Korea.

5. Notification to relevant organizations in the case of duplicate submission or redundant publication.

6. Notification of misconduct in collaborative research involving specially related persons to related organizations (schools, research-related organizations, etc., where specially related persons have received benefits such as admission, employment, etc.)

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